Fairmile Vineyard aims to produce great English wines – sustainably and with respect for the environment. The vineyard nestles in the foothills of the Chilterns within an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty and the owners are keen to enhance the land for the enjoyment of future generations.
To this end we made the decision to retain all the existing mature trees, including a couple of beautiful cedars even though it would mean that many vines would be shaded for part of the day. Some of the trees have been used to house small bird, owl and bat boxes to attract further wildlife. A windbreak of 350 Italian Alder trees, grown and sourced from a UK nursery, was planted along the western boundary. Our lime trees are a magnet for honey bees, which produce a delicious green honey that doesn't crystallise over time.
We started the vineyard by bringing 3 hectares (7½ acres) of previously fallow land into productive use. The first job was to plough the land, then plant a crop of winter mustard to fix nitrogen naturally from the atmosphere. The soil was further improved by compost from green wheelie bin council waste collections. From Day 1 of planting, we have never irrigated our vines, preferring to let nature do the work.
Whilst some vineyards remove grass from between the rows, allowing the exposed stones/flints to reflect accumulated heat back onto the vines, we leave as many natural grasses and wildflowers as possible to create wildlife corridors and encourage biodiversity. It is, however, important to keep the area immediately beneath the vines free from weeds and grass that could otherwise harbour diseases or compete for nutrients. We therefore use a novel type of mower (with cutters on hydraulic arms) which mows right up to the edges of, and even in between, the individual vines. This reduces the need for herbicide spraying. The mower is also unusually mounted in front of the tractor, which cuts the grass before it is trampled by the wheels, so reducing the amount of mowing - and fuel - required.
Our leaves act as a carbon "sink", absorbing CO2 from the atmosphere which, together with pruned canes, mulch back into the soil - and are never burned.
Pigeons are notorious vineyard raiders in late summer but our only bird-scarers are the red kites usually seen circling overhead. Whilst red kites are not known to directly attack pigeons, the presence of these large birds of prey certainly seems to have a deterrent effect!
Our picking crates are endlessly reuseable, and product packaging - glass, natural cork, metal cages, cardboard boxes - can be reused or recycled. Any plastic containers we receive go to Agri.cycle.
Unusually for a vineyard, we lie within walking distance of a town centre, and a number of our visitors walk or cycle to reach us.